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Bihar Board BSEB Intermediate Class 12 Results Expected Today At Biharboard.ac.in

Bihar Board BSEB Intermediate Class 12 Results Expected Today At Biharboard.ac.in

Bihar Board BSEB Intermediate Class 12 Results Expected Today At Biharboard.ac.in

NEW DELHI: Board of Education Bihar School (reproductive examination) must publish the results of the intermediate exam or class 12 at present. The result will be declared on the web page of the Joint Bihar partner. In recent days there has been much speculation about the results of the Bihar Council. The Bihar board is part of a series of state boards that report their results after the CBSE results statement. After the declaration of the results of the State Council, the process of admission to higher education in the main universities of Bihar start.

When to check Bihar Board Intermediate Result 2017?

The result will be available on the website of the Board member, indiaresults.com. The students could move to the same results through the link that appears in the official page of the Board of Bihar.

Last year, the Board declared the result continuously, which means that the outcome of the three flow was reported at different times. In 2016, the passing percentage for science students was 67.06%, the arts students were 56.73% and the business students were 80.87%.
According to one estimate, a total of 12,56,507 students appeared by way of Examination Board Bihar in all three streams. In addition to the usual students, 2,33,043 of these students also participated in the review, which had failed in the intermediate exam last year.

In recent years, the city council has been surrounded by numerous allegations of fraud and unfair practices in the evaluation of response sheets, so this year the Board has taken additional precautions. Measures taken by the board include the bar coding of the response sheets.

Anand Kishor, chairman of the Anand Kishor Reproductive Examination, reportedly announced that the first alternate in the intermediate examination will receive 1 INR lakh, the second purchaser will receive INR 75 000, and the third will receive INR 50 000. Quilting will also receive a laptop computer and issue each of the electronic readers.

Babri case: Court to frame charges against Advani, Joshi, Uma Bharati

Babri case: Court to frame charges against Advani, Joshi, Uma Bharati

Babri case: Court to frame charges against Advani, Joshi, Uma Bharati

Lucknow: Unconditional BJP L K Advani, Murli Manohar Joshi and Uma Bharati appear Tuesday before a special CBI court to frame the charges in the demolition of the Babri mosque case.
In addition to them, Special Judge CBI S K Yadav had asked BJP leader Vinay Katiyar, Vishnu Hari Dalmia VHP and preacher Sadhvi Ritambara of Hindutva instead to appear before the court in person.
While ordering the defendant to appear in person, the judge said that he had not requested the deferral or exemption of personal appearance is filed.
Read this story in Gujarat
The court hearing of two different cases with regard to the demolition of Babri Masjid, also impose charges against Mahant Nritya Gopal Das Mahant Ram Vilas Vedanti, Baikunth Lal Sharma alias Prem Ji Champat Rai Bansal, Mahant Dharma Das and Satish Pradhan In the second case .

The Supreme Court was presented April 19, the case against Advani (89), Joshi (83), Bharati, 58, and others accused of criminal conspiracy in a politically sensitive case. He also ordered the trial every day to conclude the two-year deadline.

The High Court has described the destruction of the monument to the medieval times of a “crime” that shook the “secular fabric of the Constitution” while allowing the CBI declaration to restore the charges of criminal conspiracy against the four BJP leaders , Including Katiyar (62) and others.

However, the Supreme Court stated that BJP leader Kalyan Singh, who is the governor of Rajasthan and whose regime as Uttar Pradesh’s chief minister, struck the structure was disputed, is entitled to immunity under the Constitution, and Which has the governor’s office.
The case was transferred against Advani, Joshi, Bharti and three other Raebareli court defendants in Lucknow for a joint trial in the case of the demolition.

The Great Barrier Reef Can No Longer Be Saved by Current Efforts, Scientists Warn

The Great Barrier Reef Can No Longer Be Saved by Current Efforts, Scientists Warn

The Great Barrier Reef Can No Longer Be Saved by Current Efforts, Scientists Warn

The Great Barrier Reef can be saved by plans to protect the existing ecological site, experts have warned, saying efforts should move to a smaller backup plan to maintain the “ecological role” of the reef.

Scientists told an Australian government committee that the current strategy to protect the reef – Coral’s long-term sustainability plan in 2050 – is not feasible in light of recent events of mass whitening, especially in the plan Does not include measures to counteract climate change.
The 2050 US $ 2 billion Plan Reef was launched in March 2015 to enhance the “universal value” of the world’s largest coral reef, each decade prior to 2050.

But at a meeting last week, scientists have warned the advisory committee overseeing the plan by which the goal of improving the reef environment is unrealistic of postal bleaching events in 2016 and 2017, contributing to the worst loss of Record of coral.

Recent figures on coral mortality from recent whitening events are also higher than expected, with new coral reefs expected in 2017, according to Russell Reichelt, president of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority .

Previously estimated lives of 22 percent of shallow water corals have increased to 29 percent, according to the latest data.

Ahead of this, experts said that revising the plan for a more achievable goal of maintaining ecological function would be more realistic, while accepting the overall health status of reef declines over time, reports Michael Slezak for The Guardian.

“The concept of” maintaining ecological function “refers to the balance of ecological processes required for the reef ecosystem as a whole remains, but perhaps in a different way,” said a spokesman the High Authority of the Marine Park of the Great barrier reef, taking into account the composition and structure may be different to what is currently seen today. ”
This seems rather ambiguous (and fatalistic), but unless further efforts to revise the Coral 2050 plan will be launched soon – including plans to address climate change directly in the strategy, as scientists have urged – this could Be the result we get.

The warnings follow a statement released by the Independent Coral Panel in early 2050, which argued that reducing greenhouse gas emissions should be at the core of protecting the reef, in addition to efforts to strengthen capacity Recovery of coral and reef ecosystems.

“[E] n our lives and our clocks, large areas of the Great Barrier Reef and surrounding ecosystems are significant long-term damage that may be irreversible if no action is taken now,” the panel said.

“The world has changed by what science tells us is unprecedented in the history of mankind. While this in itself may be a cause of action, the extraordinary speed of the changes we observe makes more action Urgent. ”

According to group chairman and former Australian chief scientist Ian Chubb, the 2050 reef plan needs significant overhaul to directly address the elephant in the room: ocean warming, the main contributor washed coral.

“We can not be passive spectators in this area. We are the reef keepers and their ecosystem for the world,” Adam Morton told the Sydney Morning Herald.

“We are not saying that the launch plan and start from scratch – actions on water quality, sediment and fertilizer are still important, but the events we refer to is removed.”

NASA to announce major details on mission to ‘touch the sun’ tomorrow

NASA to announce major details on mission to 'touch the sun' tomorrow

NASA to announce major details on mission to ‘touch the sun’ tomorrow

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is ready to share the most important details about its first “touch the sun” mission with the world at 8.30 pm on May 31. The space agency will announce details of the mission through a live event broadcast from the University Auditorium of the William Eckhardt Research Center in Chicago on NASA’s television and agency website.

The spacecraft, Solar Probe Plus (SPP), will be launched in the summer of 2018. “Located in orbit within four million miles of the surface of the sun, and against heat and radiation unlike any spacecraft in The story, the spacecraft will explore the Sun External Atmosphere and make critical observations that will answer questions from decades ago about the physics of how stars work, “NASA said. “The resulting data will improve predictions of the major space-based meteorological events that affect life on Earth, as well as satellites and astronauts in space.”

For reasons currently unknown, the outer atmosphere of the Sun Corona is several hundred times hotter than the surface of the sun, with temperatures of 500,000 degrees Celsius or more.

To get valuable data on our parent star, the solar probe will have to withstand the sparkling temperatures of more than 1400 degrees Celsius and radiation, which NASA has planned to do so by shielding it by a 11.5-cm thickness.

It will be equipped with several instruments, including a 3D camera, a solar wind particle detector and a device to measure magnetic fields. The expected cost of the solar probe project is said to be around $ 180 million.

Previous reports suggest that Solar Probe Plus is not the only ongoing NASA project to approach the Sun. The space agency is working with the European Space Agency (ESA) on another project for Sun called Solar Orbiter, a satellite that would also be Released to the star before 2020.

Don’t wanna cry after meeting Judy? How to secure your mobile from malware

Don’t wanna cry after meeting Judy? How to secure your mobile from malware

Don’t wanna cry after meeting Judy? How to secure your mobile from malware

Security firm Checkpoint announced Thursday that about 36.5 million Android devices were probably infected by the malware, called “Judy” after downloading applications developed by Kiniwini in South Korea and published under the name of ENISTUDIO Corp.

The Korean company has developed such malicious applications 41 and was able to bypass the security protocols of the Google Play Store, which allows you to download the application.

Although the full scope of this malware is still unknown, Checkpoint said it is potentially the most prevalent malware found so far on Google Play.

What Judy?

Malware, called Judy by Checkpoint after the main character in Kiniwin applications, is a self-clicking adware, infecting devices generate a large number of fraudulent clicks on ads, generating revenue for the culprits.

Google has removed the malicious applications from the store on the recommendation of Checkpoint and has updated its protection mechanism to analyze applications.

Why Android?

Experts pointed out over and over again that among malware attacks, Android smartphones are widely targeted by hackers because the Android application market offers an open platform.

In its Threat Intelligence report for the second half of 2016, Nokia reported that of all infections on smartphones, Android phones were targeted at 81% of the time.

Infection by mobile device device, H2 2016

android

How to protect your phone from Judy and her friends?

– Do not download applications from unauthorized or illegitimate application stores.

– Before downloading an application, read its privacy policy to make sure it will not share your personal information.

– When connected to a public Wi-Fi network, do not view or share personal information.

– Do as you browse and download applications over a secure wireless network.

– Choose a good antivirus application for your phone.

– Although Judy cheated on the Google Gorilla malware scanner, it is still good practice to ensure that download applications are scanned.

“Mobile devices are very prone to computer threats, especially when users are not careful about accessing links or downloading applications,” said Rohit Kumar, executive vice president and chief executive officer Paladion OnDemand. “The recent Judy malware was rejected the Android ecosystem of approximately 36 million affected mobile phones. Downloading unknown applications opens a vicious cycle of threat that can have a spiral effect and even make your phone dysfunctional.”

“With the spread of cybercrime, you can never be too sure where the next threat will come in. Keep in mind that the best policy can be adopted, including making a prudent investment in a good mobile security solution.” Add.

Moto G5S, Moto G5S Plus photos leak; feature front flash for selfie camera

Moto G5S, Moto G5S Plus photos leak; feature front flash for selfie camera

Moto G5S, Moto G5S Plus photos leak; feature front flash for selfie camera

Lenovo has a range of devices ready to be launched under the Moto brand. The Moto Moto G5 G5 Plus are the latest smartphones filtered Catalog Moto. Both phones are versions of the Moto G5 slightly modified in design and focus more on photography.

While the Moto G5 was leaked recently, photos of Moto G5 Plus were shared on Twitter via @evleaks tipster. The filtered images indicate some features of smartphones to come to give an overview of the specifications. The overall design of the two phones is very similar to the G5 Moto. Both phones come in a metal body.

While Moto G5 will be the smallest and least expensive version, eliminating the configuration of the dual rear camera, the largest of the G5 Plus motorcycle will be the same. The camera is placed in a circular frame on the back of the phone. Both devices also feature a flash forward to the autofoto camera. Read also: Moto X Force received the update to Android 7.0 nougat

In terms of specs, Motorcycle G5 will stage a 5.2-inch FHD display, and Moto G5 Plus will come with a larger 5.5-inch FHD display. Devices such as CPU variants, and RAM are still unknown. Filtered phones are in gray, gold and blue. In addition, the two smartphones can run on Android nougat out of the box.

There is no information on the release date of the devices and Lenovo should always confirm. It would be advisable to take leaks with a grain of salt for now. Since the phones are an updated version of Moto G5, the official announcement can not be produced before the second half of 2017, given the Moto G5 spent a few months, in March at MWC 2017

By quickly examining the G5 Moto specs, the phone comes with a 5 inch FHD screen and runs Android 7.0 Nougat. Under the hood, a Snapdragon 430-octa-core chipset is run and the device is available in two internal storage variants. 16 GB version is coupled with 3 GB of RAM while the 32 GB version comes with 4 GB of RAM. The phone comes with a 13 megapixel rear camera and a 5 megapixel front camera. G5 motorcycle has a 2800mAh battery.

Moto G5 Plus comes with a larger 5.2-inch FHD screen with a Snapdragon 625 chip set. The handset comes with a 12-megapixel camera for rear and 5-megapixel front camera. The internal memory is the same as the G5 Moto. The device also comes with a larger 3000mAh battery.

Air India selloff: To avoid a 2001 redux, govt needs strong political will, savvy financial strategy

Air India selloff: To avoid a 2001 redux, govt needs strong political will, savvy financial strategy

Air India selloff: To avoid a 2001 redux, govt needs strong political will, savvy financial strategy

New Delhi: Finding a strategic partner for Air India, someone who is going to invest and manage the airline responsible for debt, is easier said than done. In fact, the various branches of government seem to have different directions on the best way to go for this white elephant. Niti Ayog prepare a road map for the sale of the company for months; The Ministry of Civil Aviation wants a roadmap of the own Air India countertop; The airline has spoken to banks for massive cuts to reduce debt. And while taking all these disparate actions, the government continues to drive equity in the airline.

Now, when it seems that the government is also interested in exploring the strategic partner track to get rid of Air India, there could be more confusion. Finance Minister Arun Jaitley said in a television interview over the weekend that “history has given us a second chance that (should) be a good investor who has credibility, the Ministry of Civil Aviation will consider (divestment) “.

First, as we said before, a strategic partner is not the only option on the table. The Civil Aviation Minister Gajapathi Raju said earlier this month that the airline itself had been invited to suggest a road map for its future and the means to manage its unstoppable debt. Raju has not ruled out the cession, but persisted in saying that this is one of the options before the government. Remember, the government has consistently said parliament that it did not intend to part with Air India. So said Saturday Jaitley could simply be a balloon rehearsal to judge whether the actors offer a credible proposal for Air India.

Second, unless the government provides substantial standard operating procedures, very few investors can arise to manage an airline whose debt exceeds Rs.50 billion and continues to incur losses despite significant government financial support. While the Government believes that the large fleet of aircraft and other assets such as lucrative slots in saturated airports around the world are positive in the review process of Air India, you must also decide if the debt burden can be reduced – By haircuts by lenders or by radiation – before the plane is attractive to a potential investor.

The Timesreport Economic quoted unqualified Air India officials stating that the Tatas would be the best option if the road was taken strategic investors. Obviously, there has been no comment from Tatas because they already operate two independent companies in the crowded Indian aviation market.

Sources close to the facts indicate that Air India is already in advanced talks to agree on debt equity with certain public sector banks, which also involves a haircut. This agreement includes 19 UPS banks, which are invited to convert about $ 20,000 of credit to airline equity. Exceeding annual annual interest of Rs 4 billion rupees AI could then be reduced by a quarter if banks accept scheme S4A (Sustainable Structuring of Stressed Assets).

While this proposal looks good, no one seems to be willing to answer the simple question, should the government require PSU banks – which are already overburdened by the NPA – to take more S4A through this scheme? Why should banks have a poor management of Air India’s history? Such a scheme could see banks have up to 40% of the capital of an airline that owns approximately 15% of the domestic market in a business dominated by the boom of private actors.

However, two high-level economists have suggested the best way to turn the national airline in check by a major global airline: the result of government traps, according to the mint report.

They highlighted other successful examples of governments leaving the airline, such as the UK that privatized British Airways. “(This was widely considered to be one of the most difficult privatizations of the time Margaret Thatcher in the UK.)

S.S.C. COMBINED GRADUATE LEVEL (Tier-1) EXAM., 2015 (Held on 9-8-2015) General Awareness ’ (Ist-Shift)

  1. Allantois of Embryo helps in—
  • Respiration
  • Excretion
  • Protection
  • Digestion
  1. Which one of the following animals belongs to mollusca ?
  • Hare (B) Hydra

(C) Hyla      (D) Haliotis

  1. Outside the nucleus DNA is found in—
  • Mitochondria
  • Ribosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi bodies
  1. Animal protein is called first class protein because it is—
  • Delicious in taste
  • Cheaper in the market
  • Rich in essential amino acids
  • Easily digestible
  1. It is easy to burst a gas-filled balloon with a needle than with a nail. It is because—
  • Nail exerts more pressure than needle on the balloon
  • Needle exerts more pressure than nail on the balloon
  • Gas is reactive with the needle
  • Nail is more longer than needle
  1. The velocity of sound in moist air is more than in dry air because the moist air has—
  • Less pressure than dry air
  • More pressure than dry air
  • More density than dry air
  • Less density than dry air
  1. X-rays can be used—
  • To detect heart diseases
  • To detect defects in precious stones and diamonds
  • To detect gold under the earth
  • For cutting and welding of metals
  1. Ice is packed in saw dust because—
  • Saw dust is poor conductor of heat
  • Saw dust is a good conduc­tor of heat
  • Saw dust does not stick to the ice
  • Saw dust will not get melted easily
  1. What is used to identify whether a data word has an odd or even number of I’s ?
  • Sign bit (B) Zero bit (C) Parity bit (D) Carry bit
  1. Rearranging and allocating space in memory to provide for multi­ple computing tasks is called—
  • Multiprogramming
  • Multitasking
  • Memory Management
  • Networking
  1. What happens when a drop of glycerol is added to crushed KMnC>4 spread on a paper ?
  • There is a violent explosion
  • There is no reaction
  • The paper ignites
  • There is a crackling sound
  1. Most commonly used bleaching agent is—
  • Alcohol
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Chlorine
  • Sodium chloride
  1. The least penetrating power ray is—
  • a-Ray (B) p-Ray

(C) “/-Ray  (D) X-Ray

  1. Hydrogen peroxide is an effec­tive sterilizing agent. Which one of the following product results when it readily loses active oxygen ?
  • Water
  • Hydrogen
  • Ozone
  • Nasant Hydrogen
  1. The maximum fixation of solar energy is done by—
  • Bacteria
  • Fungi
  • Green plants
  • Protozoa
  1. The term ‘brown air’ is used for—
  • Photochemical smog
  • Sulfurous smog
  • Industrial smog
  • Acid fumes
  1. Which of the following is FALSE with respect to rain water har­vesting ?
  • It helps raising water table
  • It helps meet rising water demand
  • It increases run-off losses
  • It is a device of water con­servation
  1. Peroxyacetyl nitrate is a—
  • Plant hormone
  • Vitamin
  • Secondary pollutant
  • Acidic dye
  1. Which of the following river does not originate in Indian territory ?
  • Mahanadi
  • Brahmaputra
  • Satluj
  • Ganga
  1. To whom the line ‘A thing of beauty is a joy for ever’ is attributed ?
  • John Keats
  • Charles Dickens
  • Jonathan Swift
  • William Wordsworth
  1. The birthday of which of the following leaders is celebrated as ‘Teachers Day’ in India ?
  • Rajendra Prasad
  • Radhakrishnan
  • Rajgopalachari
  • Lala Lajpat Rai
  1. The award given for outstanding performance in sports is—
  • Bharat Ratna
  • Padma Shri Award
  • Arjuna Award
  • Dronacharya Award
  1. Which hill station’s name means ‘place of the thunderbolt’ ?
  • Shillong
  • Oottacamand
  • Darjeeling
  • Gangtok
  1. The ship building yard-Mazgaon Dock is located at—
  • Kochi
  • Kolkata
  • Mumbai
  • Vishakhapatnam
  1. Electric current is measured using which of the following instru­ment ?
  • Voltmeter
  • Anemometer
  • Wattmeter
  • Ammeter
  1. ‘Agha Khan Cup’ is related with which of the following sport event ?
  • Cricket
  • Hockey
  • Table Tennis
  • Football
  1. Where was the first conference of SAARC (South Asian Associa­tion for Regional Cooperation) held ?
  • Dhaka (B) New Delhi (C) Colombo (D) Kathmandu
  1. Which among the following is not a Bretton Woods Institution ?
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  • World Bank
  • Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (O.E.C.D.)
  • None of these •
  1. Equilibrium price in the market is determined by the—
  • equality between total cost and total revenue
  • equality between average cost and average revenue
  • equality between marginal cost and marginal revenue
  • equality between marginal cost and average cost
  1. In the national context which of the following indicates Macro Approach ?
  • Sales of Bata Shoe Company
  • Exports of Mangoes to U.K.
  • Income from Railways
  • Inflation in India
  1. Internal economies—
  • arise in an economy as it makes progress
  • accrue to a firm when it expands its output
  • arise when there is expan­sion in internal trade
  • arise when there is expan­sion in an industry
  1. One of the features of a free market economy is—
  • public ownership of factors of production
  • rationing and price control
  • consumer’s sovereignty
  • active state intervention
  1. Gross National Product – Depre­ciation Allowance = ?
  • Gross Domestic Product
  • Personal Income
  • Net National Product
  • Per Capita Income
  1. The Panchayat Samiti remains accountable for its functions to—
  • The Gram Panchayats and Gram Sabhas
  • Zilla Parishads
  • Anchal Panchayats
  • Janpad Panchayats
  1. The legislature gains a priority over the executive in—
  • A Federal Government
  • An Authoritarian Govern­ment
  • A Parliamentary Govern­ment
  • A Presidential Government
  1. The legislature in a democratic country can influence public opinion by—
  • Granting rights
  • Enacting non-controversial laws
  • Defining the duties of the citizens
  • Focusing attention on public issues
  1. If the President wants to resign from his office, he may do so by writing to the—
  • Vice President
  • Chief Justice of India
  • Prime Minister
  • Speaker of Lok Sabha
  1. Which of the following is not a Union Territory ?
  • Lakshadweep
  • Puducherry
  • Nagaland
  • Dadra and Nagar Haveli
  1. The greatest king of the Pratihara dynasty was—
  • Bhoj (Mihir-Bhoj)
  • J
  • Dantidurga
  • Nagbhatta II
  • Vatsaraj
  1. In 1939 Subhash Chandra Bose was elected as President of the Congress Party defeating—
  • Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
  • B. Patel
  • Pattabhi Sitharamayya
  1. Jallianwala incident took place at—

(A) Lucknow (B) Surat (C) Amritsar (D) Allahabad

  1. Who was the founder of Lodhi dynasty ?

 

Answers with Hints
  • Sikandar Lodhi
  • Bahlol Lodhi
  • ‘Ibrahim Lodhi
  • Daulat Khan Lodhi
  1. Which one of the following pair is not correctly matched ?
  • Akbar – Todarmal
  • Chanakya – Chandragupta
  • Vikramaditya – Chaitanya
  • Harshvardhan-Hiuen Tsang
  1. The South-East trade winds are attracted towards the Indian sub­continent in the rainy season due to—

/A) the effect of easterlies

  • the effect of Northern-East trade winds
  • the presence of low atmos­pheric pressure over North-West India
  • the development of cyclone over the equator
  1. The ‘graded profile’ of a river course is a—
  • smooth curve in the upper course
  • smooth curve in the middle course
  • smooth curve in the lower course
  • smooth curve from source to mouth
  1. Sink hole is .a phenomenon of
  • Desert (B) Tundra

(C) Karst     (D) Plain

  1. Kerala is famous for the cultiva­tion of—
  2. Coconut
  3. Black-pepper
  4. Rubber
  5. Rice
  • 1, 2 and 4 (B) 2, 3 and 4 (C) land4 (D) 1,2and3
  1. The longest continental Railway in the world is—
  • Trans Siberian Railway
  • Canadian Pacific Railway
  • Canadian National Railway
  • Trans Atlantic Railway
  1. Photoperiodismr affects—
  • Flowering
  • Vegetative growth

 

  • Fruiting
  • All of these
  1. Match the following—

List-1

  • Ascorbic acid
  • Chlorophyll
  • Carotenoid
  • Superoxide dismutase

List-II

  1. Photosynthetic pigment
  2. Quencher
  3. Enzyme
  4. Vitamin-C
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) 4 2 1 3
(B) 2 4 1 3
(C) 4 1 3 2
(D) 4 1 2 3

 

 

  1. (B) 2. (D) (A)
  2. (C) Animal milk protein (3-58%) is rich in essential amino acids and hence, it is called first class protein, which contains casein, Albumin and globulin contents; lactose in milk (4-96 to 5-48%); fat (4-14 to 8-63%) and ash (0-67 to 0-85%) in milk protein of animals.
  3. (B) 6. (D) 7. (B) 8. (A) 9. (C)
  4. (C) 11. (C) 12. (C) 13. (A) 14. (A)
  5. (C) 16. (C) 17. (C) 18. (C)
  6. (B) Brahmaputra river (2,990 km length) does not originate in Indian Territory, but its origin is from Tibbat and flow from Tibbat -* India -» Bangladesh (WB), while others – Mahanadi (880 km), Satluz (1440 km) and Ganga (2480 km) rivers are called Himalayan rivers (Indian Terri­tory origin).
  7. (A) England poet ‘John Keats’ wrote this poem “A thing of beauty is a joy for ever” in his book Endymion in 1818.
  8. (B) The ‘Teacher’s Day in India’ is celebrated each year on 5th September on the birthday of Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan (birth – 5 , 1888, death – in 1975), who was awarded Bharat Ratna and remained President of India (13 May, 1962 to 13 May, 1967),

 

Overall Reform Measures

Economic reform measures have laid the platform for take-off, but remained half-starts. Opposition has stymied the two major legislative initiatives—to relax rules on land acquisition and to create a goods- and-services tax (GST) to replace the current maze of central and state taxes. Sequencing of reforms is equally important. It is often argued that factor markets have largely remained untouched by reforms. People have particularly the labour market in mind. Flexible labour markets always help in generating faster growth. According to Dr. C. Rangarajan “the time for modifying labour markets is when the economy is booming—that is, when the eco­nomy will be able to absorb easily the disruptions, if any, caused in the labour market. Labour will then realise that it stands to gain more by a fast-growing economy than by legis­lative constraints. It is only in a growing economy that new entrants join the labour force in a big way. It avoids the trap of the employed becoming the enemy of the unem­ployed. Thus, while some reforms of the labour market are necessary, they should wait till the economy gathers momentum and moves on to a stronger growth path”.

Social Sector

Prof. Amartya Sen has empha­sised that the market economy does well for industries and agriculture, by and large, with a few exceptions it does not do well for education and healthcare. The important issue is of asymmetric information. This is a very important part in the understanding of any market economy. India is the only country which is trying to get universally educated and universal healthcare through the private sector. Japan, US, Europe, China, Vietnam, Cuba, Hong Kong and Singapore they all saw the importance of the state in making education and health­care widely spread and universal. Educa-tion and healthcare were badly neglected and continue to be so even today. The fact that with an un­healthy, uneducated labour force, it is very difficult to generate income from them and very’ difficult for solidly-shared development growth at a high level to continue. In a

PD/April/2016/94

country where half the population doesn’t have a school to go to, to concentrate on the internet is a bit of a mistake.

Poverty reduction cannot be disassociated from non-performing loans by banks to big business while farmers end their lives, the former said to fuel the wheels of democracy. Without conscious recognition of this tripartite link and resolve to reset it, poverty Is bound to remain the most convenient and used political agenda item. Hopefully, 2016 will end-up showing promised change. Our education and skills development must reach many more than it does. We must improve the delivery of our social schemes and reduce thefts, waste, and improve efficient delivery.

Cooperative Federalism

While pursuing cooperative fede­ralism, regional imbalance should not be overlooked. The growing gap in per capita income between the forward and laggard States is a cause of socio-economic stress. The ‘race to reform’ model does not take into account some factors driving long­term investment preferences : the institutional climate, urban infrastruc­ture and social development. If the Western and Southern States have left their eastern counterparts behind, it is because of their traditionally superior governance, and health and educa­tion facilities.

Financing social sector through Central schemes is a phenomenon of the last one-and-a-half decades. How­ever, while examining the various routes for social sector spending, through earmarked cesses and cen­trally-sponsored schemes in the Indian federal system, States are the primary drivers of social sector spending, be it on health or educa­tion. States’ share in social sector has remained significantly higher than the share of Centre. Over 20 per cent of the social sector expenditure by States is funded by Central transfers. Additional fiscal space given to States by way of increasing their share in the divisible pool, different States are expected to respond differently both in quantitative and qualitative terms. As things stands there has been no perceptible movement towards co­operative federalism.

“Praying without working is faith inaction.”

Employment

The most worrying failure been the absence of job creation the most important thing for government is to find out why m: jobs are not being created. The Sta: worst affected by drought are sdl not benefiting adequately from r MGNREGA. Policymakers sho_ emphasise the provision of adequaa job opportunities as economic grov— would be meaningful and inclus: only if the living standards of eve* Indian were improved. Policies a create more jobs and sharpen : skills of the labour force will needed to take advantage of derri graphic edge.

According to Pranab Bardhan, z output elasticity of employing: (which is the increase in employme for every 1 per cent increase in e: nomic output) is 0-2 per cent, ever ::i the highly labour-intensive serv:. sector. Nearly 30 per cent of Indr in the 5-24 age groups are neither employment nor in education training. India will have a lab.:. force of 568-4 million in 2020, additional 42-9 million people compared to 2015. This present- t unique challenge before polir makers—that of providing more : to the youth.

4-3 million jobs were added the Indian economy during the tv year period 2011-13. The rise formal employment was a mu: more modest rise of 2-7 million permanent workers. Today, close half or 43 per cent of governm; employees are temporary and many as 3.5 million government i have been outsourced to the priv: sector during 2000-12. The gove~ ment sector accounts for 58 per cer of formal sector jobs, but a good – per cent of these are temporary nature.

Ease of Doing Business

The government remains focused on the ease of doing busines Incremental steps to improve tr business climate in India are addr up. There is no point to deflect atter tion away from the many real ga_- in reforms. In the World Bank’s Eas: Doing Business Report for 2015, IncU

 

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